Made In Bavaria Lifestyle – immer einen Schritt voraus
Made in Bavaria: Mit dem Motorrad entlang der Alpen. 2. Süße Sünden: Zu Fuß auf eine Berghücascadebarandgrill.co ist zurück in der Heimat. 3. Marokkanische Minze: Ein. Made in Bavaria | Dixon, Reg | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Made in Bavaria. Der Anteil Bayerns am Bundesexport. Von Dr. Dr. habil. W. Henninger. 6. November , Uhr. Aus der ZEIT Nr. 45/ Von Dr. Dr. Made in Bavaria "Bayern ist Deutschlands Kreativstandort Nr. 1". Ein Zentrum für Kreative in Bayern - das gibt es seit einem Jahr in Nürnberg. Made in Bavaria. Neu bei uns "headmates" Handgestrickte Mützen von Omis aus Bayern mit nachhaltiger Wolle aus Peru mit dem das Projekt "Mirasol" in Peru.
Made in Bavaria. Der Anteil Bayerns am Bundesexport. Von Dr. Dr. habil. W. Henninger. 6. November , Uhr. Aus der ZEIT Nr. 45/ Von Dr. Dr. Geschichte made in Bavaria: Bedeutende Erfindungen aus dem Freistaat. Bayerisches Know-how ist nicht erst in jüngster Zeit begehrt. Made in Bavaria. Neu bei uns "headmates" Handgestrickte Mützen von Omis aus Bayern mit nachhaltiger Wolle aus Peru mit dem das Projekt "Mirasol" in Peru.
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Löb Strauss from Franconia better known under his American name Levi Strauss created the jeans that are popular worldwide today together with his partner Jacob Davis at the end of the 19th century.
Even though he had already emigrated to America at that time, jeans and the style they convey are still considered to be a Bavarian creation today.
When it comes to merging fashion and function, the company owner Adi Dassler was able to impress passionate footballers exactly eighty years later: he created the first screw-in studs for football boots — a real success story that is still continued today under the name Adidas.
Innovative and customised sports shoes are produced at the Speedfactory today using 3D printing. Speaking of footballers: the penalty shoot-out was also introduced in Upper Bavaria for the first time in the s.
They were developed by the car mechanic Hannes Marker from Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Besides jeans, football boots or ski boot safety bindings, Bavaria has also become renowned as a land of inventors in terms of mobility over the years.
Rudolf Diesel, among others, paved the way for the car industry with his famous invention when he invented the engine named after him in The best sign of mobility always being driven forwards in Bavaria is a comparatively recent invention: the Munich turbine manufacturer MTU presented a new aircraft engine in that is half as loud as previous engines and also saves on 15 percent fuel in the process.
Bavaria is known as a high-tech location all over the world today. The first steps for this were already taken in when Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovered X-rays.
There were many more technology revolutions in the s, including the first electronic typesetting system with digital storage by Rudolf Hell from the Upper Palatinate.
Or the patent for the chip card by the two inventors Jürgen Dethoff and Helmut Gröttrup. Another digital development that we cannot imagine life without today is mp3 technology , which was developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits in Erlangen under Professor Hans-Georg Musmann in The latest smart invention from Bavaria was in the s by the company Loewe in Franconia.
Bavaria is quite rightly considered to be a real land of inventors. Find out more from the patent offices in Bavaria now.
The geographic center of the European Union is located in the northwestern corner of Bavaria. The effects of global warming are clearly visible in Bavaria as well.
On 20 December a record temperature of One effect of the continuing warming is the melting of almost all Bavarian Alpine glaciers : Of the five glaciers of Bavaria only the Höllentalferner is predicted to exist over a longer time perspective.
The Südliche Schneeferner has almost vanished since the s. Bavaria is divided into seven administrative districts called Regierungsbezirke singular Regierungsbezirk.
Bezirke districts are the third communal layer in Bavaria; the others are the Landkreise and the Gemeinden or Städte.
The Bezirke in Bavaria are territorially identical with the Regierungsbezirke , but they are self-governing regional corporation, having their own parliaments.
In the other larger states of Germany, there are Regierungsbezirke which are only administrative divisions and not self-governing entities as the Bezirke in Bavaria.
The second communal layer is made up of 71 rural districts called Landkreise , singular Landkreis that are comparable to counties, as well as the 25 independent cities Kreisfreie Städte , singular Kreisfreie Stadt , both of which share the same administrative responsibilities.
The 71 administrative districts are on the lowest level divided into 2, regular municipalities called Gemeinden , singular Gemeinde.
Together with the 25 independent cities kreisfreie Städte , which are in effect municipalities independent of Landkreis administrations , there are a total of 2, municipalities in Bavaria.
In 44 of the 71 administrative districts, there are a total of unincorporated areas as of 1 January , called gemeindefreie Gebiete , singular gemeindefreies Gebiet , not belonging to any municipality, all uninhabited, mostly forested areas, but also four lakes Chiemsee -without islands, Starnberger See -without island Roseninsel , Ammersee , which are the three largest lakes of Bavaria, and Waginger See.
Source: Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung  . Bavaria has a multiparty system dominated by the conservative Christian Social Union CSU , which has won every election since , The Greens, which became the second biggest political party in the parliament elections and the center-left Social Democrats SPD , which dominates in Munich.
The German Greens and the center-right Free Voters have been represented in the state parliament since and respectively.
However, in the subsequent elections the CSU lost the absolute majority for the first time in 46 years. The last state elections were held on 14 October in which the CSU lost its absolute majority in the state parliament in part due to the party's stances as part of the federal government, winning The Greens who had surged in the polls leading up to the election have replaced the social-democratic SPD as the second biggest force in the Landtag with The SPD lost over half of its previous share compared to with a mere 9.
The liberals of the FDP were again able to reach the five-percent-threshold in order to receive mandates in parliament after they were not part of the Landtag after the elections.
Also entering the new parliament will be the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany AfD with Bavaria has a unicameral Landtag English: State Parliament , elected by universal suffrage.
Until December , there was also a Senat , or Senate , whose members were chosen by social and economic groups in Bavaria, but following a referendum in , this institution was abolished.
The Minister-President is elected for a period of five years by the State Parliament and is head of state. With the approval of the State Parliament he appoints the members of the State Government.
The State Government is composed of the:. Political processes also take place in the seven regions Regierungsbezirke or Bezirke in Bavaria, in the 71 administrative districts Landkreise and the 25 towns and cities forming their own districts kreisfreie Städte , and in the 2, local authorities Gemeinden.
In Bavaria introduced direct democracy on the local level in a referendum. This is a grass-roots organization which campaigns for the right to citizen-initiated referendums.
In the Bavarian Supreme Court tightened the regulations considerably including by introducing a turn-out quorum.
Nevertheless, Bavaria has the most advanced regulations on local direct democracy in Germany. This has led to a spirited citizens' participation in communal and municipal affairs— referenda took place from through Unlike most German states Länder , which simply designate themselves as "State of" Land [ The difference from other states is purely terminological, as German constitutional law does not draw a distinction between "States" and "Free States".
The situation is thus analogous to the United States, where some states use the style "Commonwealth" rather than "State".
The choice of "Free State", a creation of the early 20th century and intended to be a German alternative to or translation of the Latin-derived republic , has historical reasons, Bavaria having been styled that way even before the current Constitution was enacted in after the de facto abdication of Ludwig III.
Two other states, Saxony and Thuringia , also use the style "Free State"; unlike Bavaria, however, these were not part of the original states when the Grundgesetz was enacted but joined the federation later on, in , as a result of German reunification.
Saxony had used the designation as "Free State" from to Bavaria has long had one of the largest economies of any region in Germany, and in Europe.
This makes Bavaria one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The unemployment rate stood at 2. Bavaria has a population of approximately All other cities in Bavaria had less than , inhabitants each in Some features of the Bavarian culture and mentality are remarkably distinct from the rest of Germany.
Noteworthy differences especially in rural areas, less significant in the major cities can be found with respect to religion, traditions, and language.
Bavarian culture Altbayern has a long and predominant tradition of Catholic faith. Otherwise, the culturally Franconian and Swabian regions of the modern State of Bavaria are historically more diverse in religiosity, with both Catholic and Protestant traditions.
In , As of [update] Bavarians commonly emphasize pride in their traditions. Traditional costumes collectively known as Tracht are worn on special occasions and include in Altbayern Lederhosen for males and Dirndl for females.
Centuries-old folk music is performed. The Maibaum , or Maypole which in the Middle Ages served as the community's business directory, as figures on the pole represented the trades of the village , and the bagpipes of the Upper Palatinate region bear witness to the ancient Celtic and Germanic remnants of cultural heritage of the region.
There are many traditional Bavarian sports disciplines, e. Whether actually in Bavaria, overseas or with citizens from other nations Bavarians continue to cultivate their traditions.
They hold festivals and dances to keep their heritage alive. In New York City the German American Cultural Society is a larger umbrella group for others which represent a specific part of Germany, including the Bavarian organizations.
They present a German parade called Steuben Parade each year. Various affiliated events take place amongst its groups, one of which is the Bavarian Dancers.
Bavarians tend to place a great value on food and drink. Bavarians are particularly proud [ citation needed ] of the traditional Reinheitsgebot , or beer purity law, initially established by the Duke of Bavaria for the City of Munich i.
According to this law, only three ingredients were allowed in beer: water, barley , and hops. In the Reinheitsgebot made its way to all-German law, and remained a law in Germany until the EU partly struck it down in as incompatible with the European common market.
Bavaria is also home to the Franconia wine region , which is situated along the Main River in Franconia. The region has produced wine Frankenwein for over 1, years and is famous for its use of the Bocksbeutel wine bottle.
The production of wine forms an integral part of the regional culture, and many of its villages and cities hold their own wine festivals Weinfeste throughout the year.
In the small town Ludwigsstadt in the north, district Kronach in Upper Franconia, Thuringian dialect is spoken. During the 20th century an increasing part of the population began to speak Standard German Hochdeutsch , mainly in the cities.
Bavarians consider themselves to be egalitarian and informal. In traditional Bavarian beer gardens, patrons may bring their own food but buy beer only from the brewery that runs the beer garden.
In the United States, particularly among German Americans , Bavarian culture is viewed somewhat nostalgically, and several "Bavarian villages" have been founded, most notably Frankenmuth, Michigan ; Helen, Georgia ; and Leavenworth, Washington.
Since , the latter has been styled with a Bavarian theme and is home to an Oktoberfest celebration it claims is among the most attended in the world outside of Munich.
Xenophobic and anti-Semitic attitudes are widespread in Bavaria,   according to the "Mitte" study of by Leipzig University , with In addition, Bavaria has with Bavaria is home to several football clubs including FC Bayern Munich , 1.
They are followed by 1. FC Nürnberg who have won 9 titles. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. State in Germany. For other uses, see Bavaria disambiguation and Bayern disambiguation.
Coat of arms. Main article: History of Bavaria. Further information: Duchy of Bavaria. Further information: Electorate of Bavaria.
Main article: Kingdom of Bavaria. Main articles: Flag of Bavaria and Coat of arms of Bavaria. See also: List of places in Bavaria and List of cities in Bavaria by population.
Main article: Politics of Bavaria. SPD: 22 seats. The Greens: 38 seats. FDP: 11 seats. Free Voters: 27 seats.
CSU: 85 seats. AfD: 22 seats. See also: List of Ministers-President of Bavaria. This list which may have dates, numbers, etc. Please help improve this list or discuss it on the talk page.
May Religion in Bavaria — Religion Percent Catholics. Main article: Bavarian cuisine. Geography portal Europe portal European Union portal Germany portal.
Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung in German. July Retrieved 17 February Retrieved 13 September Lonely Planet.
Retrieved 31 August Retrieved 25 April The Local. Unjust Seizure 1st ed. Guide to Bavaria. Early Medieval Europe, — Palgrave Macmillan.
Reordering Marriage and Society in Reformation Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution 2 ed.
German History, — Clarendon Press. Greenwood Publishing Group. The Independent. Retrieved on Flags of the World.
Retrieved 19 September Retrieved 15 October Retrieved 11 June Statista in German. Retrieved 13 November Statische Ämter.
To the north lies another scenic area known as Franconian Switzerland , characterized by sinkholes, caves, and outcrops and dominated by the ruins of medieval castles.
UNESCO has designated several World Heritage sites in the state: the Residence in Würzburg , a Baroque palace and its surrounding gardens designated in ; the Pilgrimage Church of Wies , a Rococo masterpiece located in an Alpine valley; the old town area of the medieval town of Bamberg , encompassing thousands of buildings, some dating to the 11th century; the old town of Regensburg , situated on the Danube River , with structures representing two centuries of architecture; the Margravial Opera House in Bayreuth , an outstanding example of Baroque theatre architecture and decor; and the section of the limes of the Roman Empire that traverses the state.
Folk arts and culture remain important in Bavaria, and traditional crafts continue to be practiced. Bavaria is also well known for its music and theatre.
The annual Bayreuth Festival features the music of Richard Wagner. There are theatres in all the larger cities, as well as numerous orchestras, opera companies, museums, and art galleries.
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History made in Bavaria: important inventions from the State of Bavaria Bavarian expertise has not just been sought-after recently.
Did you know, for example, that the idea of a wearable pocket watch came from Peter Henlein in Bavaria in ? Mobility — once around the world from Bavaria Besides jeans, football boots or ski boot safety bindings, Bavaria has also become renowned as a land of inventors in terms of mobility over the years.
Innovation — technological breakthroughs Bavaria is known as a high-tech location all over the world today. Get in touch now. RSS Feed.
Please do not fill in this field:. Diese Artikel könnten Sie auch interessieren:. Best places: the perfect picnic in Bavaria.
Digitalisation is changing the world and making it more and more exciting. But personal moments of relaxation away from your smartphone and computer are extremely important to be able to take a deep breath now and again.
Fortunately, Bavaria offers a number of opportunities for the right work-life balance. Keywords: Bavarian way of life. This is a brass instrument that is mainly popular in the alpine region.
Gerold, a brother-in-law of Charlemagne, ruled Bavaria till his death in a battle with the Avars in , when Frankish counts took over the administration and assimilated the land with the rest of the Carolingian empire.
Measures taken by Charlemagne for the intellectual progress and material welfare of his realm improved conditions. The Bavarians offered no resistance to the change which thus abolished their duchy.
Their incorporation with the Frankish dominions, due mainly to the unifying influence of the church, appeared already so complete that Charlemagne did not find it necessary to issue more than two capitularies dealing especially with Bavarian affairs.
The history of Bavaria for the ensuing century intertwines with that of the Carolingian empire. Bavaria, given during the partition of AD to the king of the East Franks , Louis the German , formed a part of the larger territories confirmed to him in AD by the Treaty of Verdun.
Louis made Regensburg the center of his government and actively developed Bavaria, providing for its security by numerous campaigns against the Slavs.
When he divided his possessions in AD, it passed to his eldest son, Carloman , who had already managed its administration, and after his death in AD, it became a part of the extensive territories of the emperor, Charles the Fat.
This incompetent ruler left its defense to Arnulf , an illegitimate son of Carloman. Mainly due to the support of the Bavarians, Arnulf could take the field against Charles in AD and secure his own election as a German king in the following year.
Resistance to these inroads became gradually feebler, and tradition has it that on 5 July almost the whole of the Bavarian tribe perished in the Battle of Pressburg against these formidable enemies.
During the reign of Louis the Child, Luitpold , Count of Scheyern , who possessed large Bavarian domains, ruled the Mark of Carinthia , created on the southeastern frontier for the defense of Bavaria.
He died in the great battle of AD, but his son Arnulf , surnamed the Bad, rallied the remnants of the tribe, in alliance with the Hungarians, became duke of the Bavarians in AD, uniting Bavaria and Carinthia under his rule.
The German king, Conrad I , attacked Arnulf when the latter refused to acknowledge his royal supremacy but failed in the end. Henry recognized Arnulf as duke, confirming his right to appoint bishops, coin money, and issue laws.
Eberhard proved less successful than his father, and in AD, fled from Bavaria, which Otto granted with reduced privileges to the late duke's uncle, Bertold.
Otto also appointed a count palatine in the person of Eberhard's brother, Arnulf to watch the royal interests. The Bavarians disliked Henry, who spent his short reign mainly in disputes with his people.
The ravages of the Hungarians ceased after their defeat on the Lechfeld AD and the area of the duchy was augmented for a time by the addition of certain adjacent districts in Italy.
The rising occurred because the king had granted the Duchy of Swabia to Henry's enemy, Otto , a grandson of Emperor Otto the Great, and had given the new Bavarian Eastern March , subsequently known as Austria , to Leopold , count of Babenberg.
The revolt soon failed but Henry, who on his escape from prison renewed his plots, formally lost his Duchy of Bavaria in AD to Otto, Duke of Swabia.
At the same time, Carinthia was made a separate duchy, the office of Count Palatine was reestablished, and the Bavarian church became dependent on the king instead of on the duke.
Restored in AD, Henry proved himself a capable ruler, establishing internal order, issuing important laws, and taking measures to reform the monasteries.
Both exercised considerable influence among the German princes. Alarmed at his power, King Conrad III refused to allow two duchies to remain in the same hands and declared Henry deposed.
When Leopold died in , the king retained the duchy himself; but it continued to be the scene of considerable disorder, and in AD he entrusted it to Henry , surnamed Jasomirgott, Margrave of Austria.
In return, Austria was elevated from a margraviate to an independent duchy in the Privilegium Minus. It was Henry the Lion who founded Munich.
During the years following the dissolution of the Carolingian empire the borders of Bavaria changed continuously and for a lengthy period after AD, it finally started expanding.
To the west, the Lech still divided Bavaria from Swabia but on three other sides Bavaria took advantage of opportunities for expansion and the duchy occupied a considerable area north of the Danube.
During the later years of the rule of the Welfs , however, a contrary tendency operated, and the extent of Bavaria shrank.
From the 12th century onwards, the counts residing in Castle Tyrol near Merano extended their territory over much of the region and came to surpass the power of the bishops of Brixen , of whom they were nominally vassals.
Duke Henry the Lion focused on his northern duchy of Saxony rather than on his southern duchy of Bavaria, and when the dispute over the Bavarian succession ended in AD, the district between the Enns and the Inn became part of Austria.
The increasing importance of former Bavarian territories like the Mark of Styria erected into a duchy in AD and of the county of Tyrol had diminished both the actual and the relative strength of Bavaria, which now on almost all sides lacked opportunities for expansion.
The neighboring Duchy of Carinthia , the large territories of the Archbishopric of Salzburg , as well as a general tendency to claim more independence on the part of the nobles: all these causes limited Bavarian expansion.
A new era began when, in consequence of Henry the Lion being placed under an imperial ban in AD, Emperor Frederick I awarded the duchy to Otto , a member of the old Bavarian family of Wittelsbach and a descendant of the counts of Scheyern.
The Wittelsbach dynasty ruled Bavaria without interruption until AD. When Otto of Wittelsbach gained Bavaria at Altenburg in September , the duchy's borders comprised the Böhmerwald , the Inn, the Alps and the Lech; and the duke exercised practical power only over his extensive private domains around Wittelsbach , Kelheim and Straubing.
Otto only enjoyed three years of rule over Bavaria. His son Louis I succeeded him in AD, playing a leading part in German affairs during the early years of the reign of the emperor Frederick II until Louis was assassinated at Kelheim in September His son Otto II , called the Illustrious, remained loyal to the Hohenstaufen emperors despite the Church placing Bavaria under an interdict and himself under a papal ban.
Like his father, Otto II increased the area of his lands by purchases and considerably strengthened his hold upon the duchy. He died in November The efforts of the dukes to increase their power and to give unity to the duchy had met with a fair measure of success; but they were soon vitiated by partitions among different members of the family, which for years made the history of Bavaria little more than a repetitive chronicle of territorial divisions bringing war and weakness in their wake.
The first of these divisions occurred in Dying in , Henry left an only son, John I , who died childless in the following year, when the Wittelsbach emperor Louis IV, by securing Lower Bavaria for himself, united the whole of the duchy under his sway.
In the course of a long reign, Louis II, called "the Stern", became the most powerful prince in southern Germany.
He served as the guardian of his nephew Conradin of Hohenstaufen, and after Conradin's execution in Italy in , Louis and his brother Henry inherited the domains of the Hohenstaufens in Swabia and elsewhere.
He supported Count Rudolph I of Habsburg , in his efforts to secure the German throne in , married the new king's daughter Mechtild, and aided him in campaigns in Bohemia.
For some years after Louis' death in , his sons Rudolph I and Louis , afterward the emperor Louis IV, ruled their duchy in common; but as their relations were never harmonious, a division of Upper Bavaria occurred in , by which Rudolph received the land east of the Isar together with the town of Munich , and Louis the district between the Isar and the Lech.
It was not long, however, before this arrangement led to war between the brothers, with the result that in , three years after he had become German king, Louis compelled Rudolph to abdicate, and for twelve years ruled alone over the whole of Upper Bavaria.
But in a series of events induced him to conclude the Treaty of Pavia with Rudolph's sons, Rudolph and Rupert, to whom he transferred the Electorate of the Palatinate which the Wittelsbach family had owned since and also a portion of Bavaria north of the Danube, afterward called the Upper Palatinate Oberpfalz.
At the same time, the two lines of the Wittelsbach family decided to exercise the electoral vote alternately, and that in the event of the extinction of either branch of the family, the surviving branch should inherit its possessions.
The consolidation of Bavaria under Louis IV lasted for seven years, during which the emperor was able to improve the condition of the country.
When he died in he left six sons to share his possessions, who agreed upon a division of Bavaria in Its history, however, was complicated by its connections with Brandenburg , Holland , Hainaut and Tirol , all of which the emperor had also left to his sons.
All the six brothers exercised some authority in Bavaria; but three alone left issue, and of these, the eldest, Louis V, Duke of Bavaria —also margrave of Brandenburg and count of Tyrol —died in and was followed to the grave two years later by his only son, the childless Meinhard.
Tyrol then passed to the Habsburgs. Brandenburg was lost in The two remaining brothers, Stephen II and Albert I , ruled over Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Straubing respectively and when Stephen died in his three sons governed his portion of Bavaria jointly.
In , on the extinction of all the lines except those of Stephen and Albert, an important partition took place, which subdivided the greater part of the duchy amongst Stephen's three sons, Stephen III , Frederick and John II , who founded respectively the lines of Ingolstadt , Landshut and Munich.
The main result of the threefold division of proved to be a succession of civil wars which led to the temporary eclipse of Bavaria as a force in German politics.
Neighboring states encroached upon its borders, and the nobles ignored the authority of the dukes, who, deprived of the electoral vote, were mainly occupied for fifty years with internal strife.
This condition of affairs, however, had some benefits. The government of the country and the control of the finances passed mainly into the hands of an assembly called the Landtag or Landschaft , organized in The towns, assuming certain independence, became strong and wealthy as trade increased, and the citizens of Munich and Regensburg often proved formidable antagonists to the dukes.
Thus, a period of disorder saw the growth of representative institutions and the establishment of a strong civic spirit.
When John died in this family became extinct, and after a contest between various claimants, the three remaining branches of the Wittelsbach family Ingolstadt, Landshut and Munich partitioned Bavaria-Straubing between themselves.
However, Holland and Hainaut passed to Burgundy. His rule saw struggles with various towns and with his brother, John of Bavaria-Munich.
Before his accession, this restless and quarrelsome prince had played an important part in the affairs of France, where his sister Isabella had married King Charles VI.
This prince, who had married a daughter of Frederick I of Hohenzollern , margrave of Brandenburg, resented the favor shown by his father to an illegitimate son.
Aided by Albert Achilles , afterward margrave of Brandenburg, he took the elder Louis prisoner and compelled him to abdicate in When Louis the Lame died in his father came into the power of his implacable enemy, Henry of Bavaria-Landshut, and died in prison in The duchy of Bavaria-Ingolstadt passed to Henry, who had succeeded his father Frederick as duke of Bavaria-Landshut in , and whose long reign comprised almost entirely family feuds.
About this time Bavaria began to recover some of its former importance. Louis IX expelled the Jews from his duchy, increased the security of traders, and improved both the administration of justice and the condition of the finances.
In he founded the University of Ingolstadt , attempted to reform the monasteries, and successfully defeated Albert Achilles of Brandenburg.
On the death of Louis IX in January his son George , also called the Rich, succeeded; and when George, a faithful adherent of the German king Maximilian I, died without sons in December , a war broke out for the possession of his duchy.
Both brothers then engaged in warfare with the other branches of the family and with the citizens of Munich. William III, a loyal servant of the emperor Sigismund, died in , leaving an only son, Adolf, who died five years later; and Ernest, distinguished for his strength, died in Albert, whose attempts to reform the monasteries earned him the surname of Pious, almost became the elected king of Bohemia in He died in , leaving five sons, the two elder of whom, John IV and Sigismund , reigned together until John's death in The third brother, Albert, who had been educated for the church, joined his brother in , and when Sigismund abdicated two years later became sole ruler, in spite of the claims of his two younger brothers.
Albert IV , called the Wise, added the district of Abensberg to his possessions, and in became involved in the Landshut War of Succession which broke out for the possession of Bavaria-Landshut on the death of George the Rich.
Albert's rival was George's son-in-law Rupert, formerly bishop of Freising and also the successor of Philip as count palatine of the Rhine.
The emperor Maximilian I , interested as archduke of Austria and count of Tirol, interfered in the dispute. Rupert died in , and the following year an arrangement was made at the Diet of Cologne by which the emperor and Philip's grandson, Otto Henry, obtained certain outlying districts, while Albert by securing the bulk of George's possessions united Bavaria under his rule.
In Albert decreed that the duchy should thenceforth pass according to the rules of primogeniture, and in other ways endeavored to consolidate Bavaria.
He was partially successful in improving the condition of the country, and in Bavaria formed one of the six circles into which Germany was divided for the maintenance of peace.
In spite of the decree of , William IV was compelled to grant a share in the government in to his brother Louis X , an arrangement which lasted until the death of Louis in William followed the traditional Wittelsbach policy of opposition to the Habsburgs until in he made a treaty at Linz with Ferdinand , the king of Hungary and Bohemia.
This link strengthened in , when the emperor Charles V obtained the help of the duke during the war of the league of Schmalkalden by promising him in certain eventualities the succession to the Bohemian throne, and the electoral dignity enjoyed by the count palatine of the Rhine.
William also did much at a critical period to secure Bavaria for Catholicism. The reformed doctrines had made considerable progress in the duchy when the duke obtained extensive rights over the bishoprics and monasteries from the pope.
He then took measures to repress the reformers, many of whom were banished; while the Jesuits , whom he invited into the duchy in , made the Jesuit College of Ingolstadt , their headquarters in Germany.
William, whose death occurred in March and was succeeded by his son Albert V , who had married a daughter of Ferdinand of Habsburg, afterward the emperor Ferdinand I.
Early in his reign Albert made some concessions to the reformers, who were still strong in Bavaria; but about he changed his attitude, favored the decrees of the Council of Trent , and pressed forward the work of the Counter-Reformation.
As education passed by degrees into the hands of the Jesuits, the progress of Protestantism was effectually arrested in Bavaria. Albert V patronized art extensively.
Artists of all kinds flocked to his court in Munich, and splendid buildings arose in the city, while Italy and elsewhere contributed to the collection of artistic works.
The expenses of a magnificent court led the duke to quarrel with the Landschaft the nobles , to oppress his subjects, and to leave a great burden of debt when he died in October The succeeding duke, Albert's son, William V called the Pious , had received a Jesuit education and showed keen attachment to Jesuit tenets.
He secured the Archbishopric of Cologne for his brother Ernest in , and this dignity remained in the possession of the family for nearly years.
In he abdicated in favor of his son Maximilian I , and retired to a monastery, where he died in Maximilian, I found the duchy encumbered with debt and filled with disorder, but ten years of his vigorous rule affected a remarkable change.
The finances and the judicial system were reorganized, a class of civil servants and a national militia founded, and several small districts were brought under the duke's authority.
The result was unity and order in the duchy which enabled Maximilian to play an important part in the Thirty Years' War ; during the earlier years of which he was so successful as to acquire the Upper Palatinate and the electoral dignity which had been enjoyed since by the elder branch of the Wittelsbach family.Ist more info doppelt schwer für Kreative, die eh schon weniger verdienen, auf Nachhaltigkeit und Soziales zu setzen? Man erkennt, dass nicht mehr nur die Funktionalität von Innovationen wichtig ist, sondern auch das Design. Denn in Bayern gibt es viel mehr kreatives Business als man annimmt - sagt Dirk Kiefer. Deshalb kümmern wir uns um diese Aufgaben. Es gibt eine Veränderung in der Gesellschaft hin zu mehr Kreativität. Das führt ja dazu, dass das Material und die Produktion teurer werden. Diese ist vor allem im Ausland positiv belegt. Für die Datenverarbeitung ist dann der Drittanbieter verantwortlich. Schlagworte: Bavarian way of life Alle Schlagworte anzeigen. Wir haben beobachtet, dass jungen This web page Nachhaltigkeit und soziales Wirtschaften wichtig ist. DM über vier Fünftel des Gesamtexporterlöses erzielte, Made In Bavaria ihre günstige Auswirkung auf die Devisenlage anzudeuten.